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534 publication date:JUN, 2022
Development and Validation of the Chinese Reading Motivation Scale
    Author:Pin-Lun Juan, Kuo-En Chang, Yao-Ting Sung
Research Article

Reading is a complex activity that requires long-term activity. Therefore, if you want to keep reading behavior, you need to have a strong reading motivation. In the past research on reading motivation, it was found that reading motivation was inseparable and positively related to the relationship between reading comprehension and reading achievement. This also showed that reading motivation played a vital role in learning. In addition, students’ reading motivation not only affected students’ academic performance and behavior, but was also related to gender and grade. In the gender of reading motivation, it was found that girls’ reading ability was significantly better than that of boys; in the grade of reading motivation, it was found that children were enthusiastic about reading at the beginning, and were curious and interested in reading. But as children grow older, their reading behavior was guided by the conversion of intrinsic motivation to extrinsic motivation. Especially from the middle school stage, the learning goals began to change. For example, the students read for exams, so reading motivation gradually declines.

    However, most of the current scales measuring reading motivation use Wigfield and Guthrie’s 11 dimensions of MRQ reading motivation as research tools. This reading motivation scale has been developed for a long time and is widely used, and has been translated into different languages used in countries around the world, such as Europe, America, Asia and other regions. However, the reading motivation scale compiled based on the Chinese reading environment is rare.

    Therefore, this study will use Wigfield and Guthrie’s (1995) MRQ and Wigfield and Eccles (2000) expected value theory as the literature basis to establish a Chinese reading motivation scale suitable for elementary and middle school students to help teachers understand students’ reading motivation. This research was divided into two parts. Study 1 was based on the reading motivation scale constructed by relevant research institutes as the research basis of the literature. Open-ended questions were used to collect data, analyze and classify by content analysis through qualitative interviews to compile the dimension of a Chinese Reading Motivation Scale (CRMS); in Study 2, the pre-test scale questions were established based on the content analysis method of Study 1, and the data and results obtained, and the pre-test and formal test were carried out. Then verify the reliability and validity of the Chinese Reading Motivation Scale (CRMS) through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) methods. In addition to confirming the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, it also compared the differences in the performance of reading motivation between gender and grade.

    Study 1 constructed the interview questions of the “Chinese Reading Motivation Scale” (CRMS) through literature review and semi-structured interviews. A total of 60 students participated in the interview. The grades ranged from elementary school to high school, there were 20 students in each grade, 25 boys and 35 girls. Due to the urban-rural gap, 60 participants were from eight regions. There were New Taipei City, Taipei City, Hsinchu, Changhua, Nantou, Chiayi, Kaohsiung, and Yilan.

    First of all, we will organize the interview transcript of the interview content, and then analyze the interview transcript by means of content analysis. At the same time, there will be expert consultation when we have different opinions in the data sorting. In the data analysis, according to the qualitative analysis steps of Crabtree and Miller (1999), the spoken data analysis method in the content data analysis method (protocol analysis) is carried out, and the audio recording data is transcribed into interview transcript which is then coded and classified. After data analysis in this study, there are a total of 15 dimensions, which will be classified and named, namely “Curiosity,” “Involvement,” “Society,” “Competition,” “Environment,” “Convenience,” “Habit,” “Recognition,” “Challenge,” “Achievement,” “Compliance,” “Efficacy,” “Interest,” “Acquisition of Knowledge” and “Future Ambition.” The Study 2 is mainly based on the 15 dimensions of the Study 1, and the content of the “Chinese Reading Motivation Scale” (CRMS) is compiled. In addition, there will be two stages in data collection and analysis, including the pre-test and the formal test stage. The reliability and validity are verified through exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

    In the pre-test stage, the participants were students from the fourth grade of elementary school to the eighth grade of junior high school. A total of 750 questionnaires were answered, including 373 boys, 364 girls, and 13 students who did not fill in their gender. According to exploratory factor analysis, the original 15 dimensions were combined into 10 dimensions. Besides, there were 53 questions were deleted from 105 questions, and 52 questions were retained. Ten dimensions, namely “Engagement,” “Future Ambition,” “Recognition and Compliance,” “Environment,” “Competition,” “Grades,” “Society,” “Self-demand,” “Self-efficacy” and “Curiosity.” All the questions had a load of .5 or more, indicating that the scale was reliable.

    In the formal test stage, a total of 2,400 questionnaires were sent out, mainly for students from grades 3 to 9 in the northern, central, and southern regions of Taiwan. A total of 2,305 questionnaires were collected and 32 of them were invalid because there were over 5 questions were not completed or filled with the same options through the entire questionnaires. There were a total of 2,273 valid questionnaires, with 1,246 boys and 1,027 girls. Confirmatory factor analysis was adopted as the construct validity. The questionnaire was based on a Likert-scale five-point scale. Participants answered the questionnaire according to their actual reading situation, ranging from 1 to 5 points. The higher the score in each dimension, it showed the participants were paying more attention to reading motivation in this dimension.

    This study constructed a “Chinese Reading Motivation Scale” with 52 questions in 10 dimensions, and verified that the scale was reliable and valid. In the past studies on reading motivation have mostly used overall reading motivation to analyze gender differences but less explored the gender differences in different reading motivation dimensions. This study particularly examined the performance of boys and girls in reading motivation from different perspectives, and provided further information for the comparison of reading motivation between genders. The results of the study were found that the performance of boys and girls in the dimensions of reading motivation was different. Girls were significantly higher than boys in the three dimensions of “Engagement,” “Environment” and “Grades.” On the contrary, in “Recognition and Compliance” and “Competition,” boys were higher than girls. This showed that teachers could consider gender differences and give different teaching stimulation to effectively enhance students’ reading motivation.

    In addition, from the perspective of grade differences, if we wanted to develop students’ reading motivation, we could start from the students of lower grades. When the teacher had a good reading teaching plan and student had the stronger motivation, it would be easier to achieve effectiveness; on the contrary, the older the grade, the lower the reading motivation. Furthermore, according to the data of interview, it was found that although the “Environment” and “Self-demand” in the reading motivation dimension had no difference in grades, the students generally believed that the “Environment” was a prerequisite for reading, they started reading only in good reading atmosphere and comfortable environment. Therefore, creating and well-arranged “Environment” of classroom was also an important part of teaching that could improve reading motivation; in addition, students could also fully realize their ability and level of reading. Therefore, teachers were suggested to help students find out a suitable and appropriate way of reading.

    In summary, the target of this “Chinese Reading Motivation Scale” (CRMS) was mainly elementary and middle school students, and had certain reliability and validity; this scale was suitable for Chinese reading environment in Taiwan and can assess students’ multiple aspects of reading motivation. For researchers who want to engage in reading-related research in the future, this CRMS can be used as a basis. In research limitations, this research considered time and labor costs. Currently, the CRMS is only for students from elementary school to middle school. In the future, it can be expanded to high school students in order to examine the applicability of this scale to students who are in different learning stages and will establish a more comprehensive measurement tool for Chinese Reading Motivation Scale.


關鍵詞: expectancy-value theory, reading motivation, reading motivation scale, confirmatory factor analysis

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